Mining Engineer - surveyor
An ancient legend says that the son of Zeus and Europe - a cruel and mighty king Minos of Crete - built a large underground storage - Labyrinth, hiding their treasures in it. Anyone who dared to penetrate into the ground, inevitably perish, entangled in complex passages of the Labyrinth.
Only Theseus, the son of the Athenian king Aegeus, managed to get down there and get many treasures. Helped him in this wise daughter of Minos Ariadne. She gave a secret from his father brave young man who fell in love, the end of the coil of thread and, standing at the entrance to the dungeon, unwinding it. Holding on to the magic thread, Theseus returned.
With Theseus can compare our miners. Tysyachemetrovuyu through thick rock they make their way to get to the underground treasures - mineral resources - coal, gold, iron ore, oil, diamonds, copper ore, live silver and many others.
How to know where and are the treasures on the earth's surface? They and at what depth, quality, what form they have a lot there in the depths, underground, these treasures? How to find the best way to underground mineral resources, as careful, do household use then these treasures for the people? Once these treasures will come out - what will happen to the earth's surface? Or failure of the home and other sooruzheniyaili just collapse, and perhaps will remain completely intact? Perhaps you need to do something to save the treasures underground and keep the house and other structures and natural features on the earth's surface?
In addressing these complex and very interesting questions, Mining Engineer - Surveyor is the first and most important role.
Miners, without the "Ariadnovoi thread" can not work underground. Deep in the bowels, underground lost all sense of direction and location. The role of Ariadne in our time and playing surveyor.
As aviation navigator in the sky in majestic heights rate shows an aircraft or marine navigator gives direction to the open sea, or surface ships in the deep sea submarine, as a mining engineer - surveyor, often referred to - mountain navigator, points in the interior, in subterranean depths direction of mining, the plan for them and all of mineral deposits. Plans for mining, as if it takes a large rock mass, which lies above the workings and shows what happens in deep water, where the extracted minerals. This makes it possible to navigate and good to know where the minerals and mine workings on them, their location relative to the Earth.
Surveying arose with the emergence of mining. The first information on surveying measurements mining came to us from antiquity. In Turin kept parchment, which dates to the time of the Egyptian king Mineptaha, who lived in 1600 - 1400 years BC. On this parchment shows the mine production of gold.
In 1907, during excavations in Wadi Magor (Sinai) was found a small copper mine, the development of which was fought for four centuries before Christ. On the wall of one of the workings of the mine found a picture of this mine.
Of great historical interest is the work of Hero of Alexandria (I c. BC), who proposed instruments for measuring horizontal and vertical angles and leveling. He left the first extant, the description of geometric measurement methods of underground workings and their orientation. These methods were used by the Romans when driving 6 km long tunnel to drain water from the lake Fuqing (Central Italy). For faster gallery of colliding slaughter was laid 40 mines vertical depth of 88 to 122 m.
In the Middle Ages, along with the geometric means shooting mines have been widely used magnetic devices.
Eminent German scientist George Agricola XVI century old experience generalized mining and metallurgy. The fifth section of "On Mining and Metallurgy" Agricola considered shooting underground mine with a compass and solutions to some geometric problems encountered in the development of mineral deposits.
In the second half of the XVI century in Germany from among the miners began to emerge persons who are specially engaged in surveying mining and transport of the border areas in the interior. They were called the surveyor, and the range of issues that they have decided - surveyor art.
Mining occurred here in Russia and in the ancient times. There is evidence that even before the Christian era the Scythians and Sarmatians, who inhabited present-day Ukraine, the Volga region and Kazakhstan to address mining. There are also facts that our ancestors mined ore, forged out of her arms and reflect enemies of our land. Although this period of mining development is poorly understood, but the existence of time mining of iron ore, silver, live, rock salt is not in doubt. On this basis it is thought that in the old days, we will definitely start there Surveying.
Technique of the underground passages and the orientation they were known to have a very long time. For example, we know that in 1552, when our troops took Kazan, the royal "rozmysl" (according to the present - engineer) named Zilant made some huge tunnel, conducted with the royal rate to the walls of the city of Kazan.
If we take into account that all these works had to be done invisibly to the enemy, and the directions of these tunnels were correctly oriented, but still a great distance, then of course, our people already mastered the art of the underground workings. To perform such a difficult task, we had a very good knowledge of the methods of how to give guidance and direction of the underground workings, based on some unique analytical methods.
Great development mining gained in times of Peter I, who organized the search for new mineral deposits and their development. Not even during the difficult mining of the time, they could not do without the basic geometric measurements and constructions.
Therefore, in Russia, the first mention of the surveyors are the times of Peter I.
In "Factory statute," V.M.Tatischev compiled and published in 1734 were detailed functions surveyor: "This man should be in the mountains and other such sciences pretty clever, but to the faithful and diligent, subordinate to a special little looking bugle mezheviki, forest guards, surveyors and school teachers ... "
The same statute required "to have a flat split drawings of each miner, with an indication on their occurrence and all the features of the development of the mine and promptly replenish them with new works, to supplement and correct the general map of the county by the rules set out in the special instructions from the Academy of Sciences, where and must submit copies of maps of the whole mountain district or province. "
The first scientific work on surveying business in Russia is a classic work of genius MSU "The Fundamentals of Metallurgy and Mining," written in 1742 and published in 1763. In the third part of the fifth labor, called the Lomonosov, "On the measurement of the mines," address all the measurements of mines, mining solutions geometrical problems and plan and sections.
In the archives of some of the Urals (and especially Berezovsky) preserved plans and maps produced in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, they indicate a high quality of perfect measurements in mines and on the surface, the use of a single coordinate system for large mining areas. In the late eighteenth century mining geometric science declined. It took the efforts of many Russian scientists, to give a new impetus to the development of science and engineering surveying. Special merits in this A.I.Maksimovicha - teacher Petersburg Mining School (now the Leningrad Mining Institute), P.A.Olisheva (1817 - 1896) - Prof. Petersburg Corps of Mining Engineers, G.A.Time (1831 - 1910) - Prof. Petersburg Mining Institute.
G.A.Time first drew attention to the significant drawbacks of posting surveying services in Russia is the fragmentation of individual surveys and mines, in the absence of controls over the service surveying individual mines, lack of accuracy and mining plans that were drawn up, which causes private ownership of the subsoil, to the Great October Socialist Revolution.
Development of Capitalism in Russia, after the abolition of serfdom in 1861, contributed to the expansion of the mining industry and created the prerequisites for moving forward all branches of mining science, including surveying. Mining practices have been assigned new tasks to the surveying service, which successfully resolved galaxy of Russian surveyors led by such prominent scholars as V.I.Bauman (1867 - 1923), P.M.Leontovsky (1871 - 1921), P. K.Sobolevsky (8168 - 1949), I.M.Bahurin (1880 - 1940), and others created by Russian surveyor school.
However, many very important ideas of these scholars were not implemented at the time in practice, because the times are not consistent with the selfish purposes of private entrepreneurs.
The Great October Socialist Revolution provided an opportunity to nationalize the mining enterprises, eliminate private ownership of mineral resources, placing them in the hands of the people, to address the major obstacles that stand in the way of development of the mining industry, including the first and surveying services, preceded her in principle quite new challenges.
Gone is the irretrievable past narrowly proprietary conquest and the interests of individual mines, which restricted the development of mine surveying.
The young Soviet republic was badly surveying inherited from Tsarist Russia. Mining plans of many mines have been destroyed or removed by former owners who had fled abroad. Restoration of mines, most of which at the time was flooded with water, without surveying plans was associated with great danger, if not impossible.
Surveyors young Soviet Republic was a lot of work, which resulted in the mine were so necessary for their recovery plans of mine workings. Significant role in the development of surveying played II Russian Congress of Surveying (1921) convened in Petrograd on the initiative of Professor V.I.Baumana and P.M.Leontovskogo. It discussed the urgent task of improving surveying services in the new socialist economy and outlined a series of events, legitimized the decision of the Soviet government in April 1922.
In 1932, in Leningrad hosted Surveying Union Congress, which summarized the work carried out by the Soviet surveyor and set objectives, the importance and nature of surveying services socialist mining enterprise. Pursuant to the decisions of the congress was established central research surveying office (TSNDMB), later (1945) reorganized the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Surveying (VNDMI) - the first and the world's only scientific institution surveying profile.
The main issue discussed at the Congress, was the question of the meaning and nature of surveying services socialist enterprise.
If under capitalism is only zyomschikom surveyor, which fixes the plans state mines, then in socialist surveyor mining company - is one of the main leaders of its production activities.
Surveying is the branch of mining science and technology, primarily engaged in the geometrical measurements and calculations in order to:
- Graphics on the plans and sections of mines, held in the exploration and development of fields, forms of mineral deposits and the distribution of its qualitative properties, the surface on the areas of mineral deposits, and put on it works; - The decision of many geometric problems that arise in various stages of preparation and life of the mining enterprise: exploration, design, construction, mining enterprises, exploitation of mineral deposits, and in the period after the liquidation of output.
Surveying work carried out at all stages of field development. Minerals, which lies in the depths, is inaccessible for direct visual perception, that is, it can not cover the eyes, as the site location on the earth's surface. So, before you begin to develop, you need to clearly portray him in a reduced form on paper (background) with all the indicators that characterize the change in the shape and properties of geological faults, that is, hold the geometrization of the mineral. In the construction of graphs shall count the fossil. That job surveyor with a geologist in the field of exploration and exploitation.
Based on the geometrization is designing mines. When designing a planning agency, mining engineers - surveyors are many different interesting calculations protective pillar mining under different structures, which build on the Earth's surface, and more.
During the construction of the mine or mine surveyor with special tools and equipment to set out the geometric elements of a project of mine and suitably secured them. So, for sinking bore surveyor makes and fixes on the ground and its center axis. To put structure copra hoist need according to the draft on the ground indicate the outlines. Then, using various instruments surveyor to monitor the proper conduct of the barrel and installation copra and hoist.
When the barrel is passed to the design depth, surveyor should give direction to various workings okolostvolnogo court, the configuration of which is very complex. To solve this problem, we must be able to navigate in the space of these workings and know th position in relation to the earth's surface and the objects placed on it. This problem is solved with the help of modern sophisticated precision instruments - gyrocompass (as in space ships), optical, electronic EDM, electronic computers, etc.
To be able to extract minerals in the subsoil must be completed very complex system projected mines located at different heights and extending in a different direction for miles. Surveyor with sophisticated optical and physical instruments indicates miners drilled place these developments, is strict and accurate account of the mineral, which is issued to the surface and how much remains in the depths, following the thrifty and orderly development of mineral resources, to avoid any unacceptable loss of minerals.
Surveyor systematic measurements in mines passed, which resulted in such a reduced form and on paper is their image, that is building a plan Surveying underground mine workings. Complexity of the construction of the plan because the slaughter mining continuously move forward, and some of those developments, which do not need to extract minerals - heap. Therefore the surveyor must be timely performed in these measurements. Of accurate and timely shooting mines affect the lives of hundreds of people working underground.
Errors made by surveyor in measurements, calculations or building plan or set any direction workings, can have tragic consequences. Mining plans are important not only in light of the objectives of the present or near future. No less important, they may have dozens or even hundreds of years. Professor IN Bakhurin wrote: "He who is Surveying plan should remember that he is responsible for his work not only for the present but also the future."
Here are some examples. Many mines are working in the Donbass coal seams, the upper levels are developed many decades ago and is now flooded. If there were no reliable surveying plans of the old mine workings, near their work would be virtually impossible. Reconstruction Berezovsky mines in the Urals Nikitovsky mine in Ukraine Kafan mine in Armenia, etc. become possible only due to the presence of high-quality plans, mining the past decades.
By the way, remember the tragedy in the mines "Neptune", described in a novel by English writer A.Kronina "Stars Look Down." Lack of plan surveying mines flooded the mine and the death of a hundred people. Therefore, the mining engineer, surveyor raises many important tasks and the liquidation of the mining enterprise. Thus, the surveyor involved from exploration to eliminate mining company after the development of mineral resources. He first appears at the beginning of construction of the mine, all the time of the mine it is always there and the last leaves her.
With the passage of many underground workings, or the reconstruction of mines is often necessary to connect them underground mining, which is to reduce the time it is being drilled from both shafts simultaneously in opposite directions. To set the direction of this slaughter, surveyor must perform a large set of complex and very important work on the ground and in the mine, through a variety of precision instruments and devices. The same work is done surveyor in the construction of tunnels and underground railways, as well as the passage of the same vertical mine shaft with different horizons underground mine workings.
When you need a surface mine drill a well to feed on it in mine workings fresh air or water to extinguish a fire, lower timber, specify the location of the well can only surveyor.
Mining operations in the ground leads to the formation of voids, which upset the balance higher-lying rocks and displace them by gravity - the process of strata movement.
This movement comes to the surface, and depending on the depth of the location, power, and area of emptiness, which was formed in violation of this earth's surface, leading to failures, cracks, holes. If the earth's surface area will be any industrial and civil construction, the nature of the surface will deform violations and constructions, which could lead to their complete destruction. To keep important objects below them in the depths necessary to leave some minerals, the so-called "safety pillar." This should be left pillar of necessary and sufficient size to avoid unnecessary costs. The solution to these very complex and important issues at a mine surveyor and deals.
The data presented do not exhaust the range of issues dealt with by the surveyor. But what is said, gives an idea of the complexity, responsibility and great practical importance Surveying.
Now, when our country goes to a new level of economic and social development, the main task of further growth of the economy is to increase the productivity and efficiency of production on the basis of rapid scientific and technological progress.
Development of the mining industry has, in recent years the introduction of the new development plan, increasing the speed of treatment and podviganiya development faces, increasing the depth of development and the size of the mine fields. As the level of mechanization of mines - mines and quarries - the role of surveying services is constantly growing, an increasing range of issues of concern to the mine surveying. In this regard, there is a need to use a fundamentally new methods of filming, which would dramatically improve productivity while increasing the accuracy and reliability of the measurements.
One of the most effective ways to solve this problem is widely used in modern surveying business achievements in physics, and electronics.
Currently widespread in the mines for orientation were gyroscopic instruments, measuring distances in the mines and on the surface are carried out with the help of light and DME, the direction given by mine workings with laser pointers. Widely used in surveying practice received ultrasonic devices, data processing surveying surveys performed on electronic computers.
Surveying is closely linked with a number of other branches of science and technology, and above all with geodesy. When surveying geodetic surveys are widely used methods and tools. When the geometrization of a field surveyor can not do without a fundamental knowledge of geology, so surveyor examines the comparatively high rate of geological sciences, and it is not surprising that some of the surveyors working geologists and surveyors.
Mine surveyor should know mining, especially of mineral development, without which it can not properly address issues mine planning, to ensure proper control over their conduct. In addressing the many issues Surveying widely applied mathematics. Without knowledge of analytical and descriptive geometry, differential geometry, mathematical statistics, probability theory and the theory of errors can not be a deep understanding of the course Surveying.
In solving most of the problems surveyor uses a variety of devices such as electronic telemeter and EDM, the foundation of which is the speed of the electrical and optical waves, and devices based on ultrasound, and others, so, of course, this requires a very good knowledge of modern physics.
Preparation of Mining Engineers - Surveyors now conducted in 14 universities.
For the first time in Russia we train engineers of this specialty was opened in 1904 in the Tomsk Polytechnic Institute, where he was trained several engineers this profile and their release was canceled.
Only after the October Revolution in 1921, the Leningrad Mining Institute in 1925 in Dnepropetrovsk Mining Institute offices have been opened for the preparation of Mining Engineers - Surveyors, where and preparations are underway for these engineers. Later, the training of engineers dug this profile in other higher educational institutions of our country - the Sverdlovsk Mining Institute, Donetsk Polytechnic, Kuzbass Polytechnic, Moscow Mining, Krivoy Rog Mining Institute and others.
By the development of Surveying in the Soviet Union have worked hard whole constellation figures - tsp. corr. USSR prof. I.M.Bahurin, member. corr. USSR prof. MG Kelly, prof. A.E.Gutt, prof. I.P.Buhinik, prof. D.A.Kazakovsky, prof. D.M.Ogloblin, prof. S.G.Averin and many others. Now there is an extensive literature on how Surveying for Academic Affairs, and on the development of science in this very important sector of the national economy.
Upon graduation by surveying graduate degree awarded the qualification of a mining engineer, surveyor. In this specialty, he can work on the surveyor of mines, quarries, and the development of placer dredges and chief surveyor Ministry of Mines. In addition, without a mining engineer-surveyor not build underground, sinking the various transport and hydraulic tunnels, construction of the underground defense facilities. Mining engineer and surveyor can successfully work on the construction of any large enterprise, in a geological expedition, and mining engineer-operatives. A lot of mining engineers, surveyors working director and chief engineer of mining enterprises, as well as in higher education and scientific - research institutions - professors, assistant professors, assistants and researchers. Many engineers and surveyors working in design organizations.
Head of Department of Surveying
Dnipropetrovsk Mining Institute,
Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor I.G.Lisitsa
Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Associate Professor of Surveying
Donetsk Polytechnic Institute M.G.Papazov